WARREN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SOLVE AIR PLANE WING FLIGHT PROBLEMS
The problems with Bernoulli's vacuum being applied to winged flight has been known for several years here in Warren, Ohio. Where for years Harding high school students ran win tunnel tests on different advanced air foils to be used in the construction of a Human powered helicopter. Under the supervision of George Lazar shop teacher and technical advisor Frank Naypaver Delphi Packard Electric, and president of Youngstown Warren Inventors Club. Students worked on designing a efficient high lift anti stall helicopter rotor that was discovered and developed, and is in use for the on going development of a human powered helicopter which now hangs from the ceiling of the Harding Highschool wood shop. We agree with Anderson that the accepted reasons for flight are wrong. We researched the "Coanda effect" and the Bernoulli theory but found them both to falls short of explaining all the varieties of flight like hot air balloons, bats, and insect flat wings. We found and developed a more acceptable theory, which is that of air mass displacement and we have developed a "air mass displacement formula" that works well in calculating the possible lift of any wing or rotor using, usable wing area, angle of attack, and air speed. The air mass displacement idea demonstrates how helicopter rotors, airplane wings, and hot air balloons or lighter then air craft all share the same theory for flight .the Coanda and Bernoulli theories only try to explain air foil wings which they do very badly because using these theories no aircraft could fly upside down and bumble bees would have to learn to walk from flower to flower.
HOW WINGS WORK AND LIFT FORMULAS
AIRPLANES AND HELICOPTER WINGS
Copy write 9/22/1998 Frank R. Naypaver
In the quest of designing a human powered helicopter. It became apparent that the physics involving wing design and lift taught in schools and colleges is flawed. The only valid information comes from wind tunnel testing a variety of airfoils, and graphing them at a variety of attack angles and air speeds. Unfortunately modelers and inventors don't share the same demands on airfoils as aerospace companies and the airplane industries. So the laminar flow and lift characteristics of a DC-10 wing is of little use to low air speed plane wing developers. Further the Bernoulli lift concept where lift is caused by the curved top of the wing, is in error and can simply be disregarded. Consider if the contour of the top of the wing was solely responsible for the lift of the wing then inverting the wing would cause negative lift no airplane could fly upside down. All airplanes are capable of inverted flight. Proving that lift does not come from the air foil but the angle of attack the wing has to the air flow. The operation of the airfoil is to reduce air drag and allow the wing to move through the air at different angles and speeds efficiently. The formula for the lift of a wing, evolves from the idea of the wing displacing its weight in air mass, like a balloon. But a balloon statically displaces air mass where the wing must accomplish the same, by movement through the air. The lift is from the air molecules striking the bottom of the wing at some angel of attack. Like billiard balls deflecting off toward the ground and reacting on the wing as lift in the opposite direction. From the length, forward speed, an width of the wing, and knowing the angle of air attack one can easily predict the cubic feet of air mass the wing will displace as it moves forward through the air. Geometric analysis of this process show that the tangent of the attack angle is the lift vector. This is reasonable because the tangent of zero degrees is (0) zero producing zero lift from the formula, and tangent of 45 degrees attack angle is (1) one or 100% lift mass efficience. So if we take the volume of air mass contacting, and being displaced by the bottom of the wing per second times the air particle deflection lift vector per second we will attain a value for lift in the form of foot pounds per second squared. Dividing this by the acceleration of gravity / 32 feet per second squared, we get lift in pounds. Converted for horse power the base formula value is multiplied by the horse power constant /.0018 foot pound per seconds giving HP per second. So the formula yields some useful comparable values.
Copy write 9/22/1998 Frank R. Naypaver
In helicopters there is swing and load mechanism between the hub and the inside edge of the rotor, so three to four feet of the rotor blade length is in a no lift zone and should be subtracted from the total blade lifting ability. Also the inner rotor edge speed of helicopters is a lot less than the rotor tip speed. A average should be taken by considering two blades lifting ability as that of one blade.
These formulas predict the best lift possible for a given attack angle and wing size. A good air foil helps get the actual lift nearer to this ideal value, a bad air foil will defeat some of the lift because air molecules above the wing will be pushed down by surrounding air molecules into the void left by the moving wing, and collide with the wing, in a counter clockwise motion counter acting some of the lifting collisions of air molecules from the bottom of the wing. Ideally if the slope of the wing shape falls off faster than the air molecules are pushed into the void the air molecules miss the wing surface completely and do not counteract the lift, air molecules produce from the bottom of the wing, this condition is called the laminar flow in wind tunnel test and only happens at certain air speeds and attack angles for a particular air foil shape.
Keep in mind that we always seem to view an airfoil backward with the air flowing over and under it, in reality the air is stationary and the wing moves through it disturbing it. All airfoils produce leading edge drag and since in physics you never get something for nothing the lift the wing produces converts to lift drag on the wing. The above formula predicts this drag as horse power per sec, and can be useful in test designing the best wing lift to power ratios of a wing configuration. Using and understanding these apparently unknown, new concepts of lift brings one to design some unique possibly never designed air foils to deal with low speed wings. Which have been done at Warren G. Harding high school, Warren Ohio, with the help of their wind tunnel and students new and exciting high attack, high lift. anti- stall, low drag airfoils have been developed. Which use a clock wise air rotation over the wing instead of the stall causing counter clock wise air rotation found on all standard airfoils.
This is the highest lifting wing foil possible, it has a 1 to 1 air mass to lift, ratio and produces a never before seen clock wise air current rotation behind the lifting wing were standard wings all produce a counter clock wise rotation that increase drag and cause the wing to stall. Graphs from wind tunnel test show that the wing wind drag flattens out but the lift continues off the chart this suggests that this wing design used in helicopters would increase their efficiency and lifting ability.
Keep in mind that we always seem to view an airfoil backward with the air flowing over and under it, in reality the air is stationary and the wing moves through it disturbing it. All airfoils produce leading edge drag and since in physics you never get something for nothing the lift the wing produces converts to lift drag on the wing. Example at a zero degree angle of attack, the tangent of zero degrees equals zero, there will be no lift and minium drag, at a 45 degree angle of attack the tangent is equal to one, or lift drag is equal to the lift. Using and understanding this apparently unknown new concept of lift brings one to design some unique possibly never designed air foils to deal with low speed wings.